Baptists get their name from the Anabaptists which means "Re-Baptizers."
Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists baptize infants and generally do not baptize adults unless they are new converts.
Christian movements such as Anabaptists believe in the Believer's baptism. Which means that someone should receive Christ as Savior and Lord before they are baptized. Unless someone is baptized after they are born again, it is basically useless.

Anabaptist and Baptist titles are basically synonymous. Yet in modern times, there are several Anabaptist groups and basically 4 divisions of Baptist denominations.

Without getting too specific, I'll give a brief description of the 4 Baptist groups:
1) Pentecostal Baptists - Believe that only a born again person should be baptized, you can forfeit your salvation through apostasy, Holy Spirit Baptism and salvation are not synonymous, that Jesus died for all people, and are millenialists. This group is the fewest in number.
2) Arminian Baptists - Believe you can forfeit your salvation through apostasy, that only a born again person should be baptized, that salvation and Holy Spirit Baptism are synonymous, that Jesus died for all people, and are millenialists.
3) General Baptists - Believe once saved always saved, that only a born again person should be baptized, that salvation and Holy Spirit Baptism are synonymous, that Jesus died for all people, and are millenialists. This group is the largest of the four.
4) Calvinistic Baptists - Believe and practice Believer's baptism, that salvation and Holy Spirit Baptism are synonymous, that no one can accept Christ as Lord unless God forces them to, that God preselected who is supposed to go to Heaven and Hell, that those preselected for Heaven can never be lost, and that Jesus did not die for all people. There are both amillenialists and millenialists in this sect.

All Anabaptists and Baptists believe everything listed in the Apostle's Creed with no exception.

Most denominations believe in the Believer's Baptism. Those that don't practice Believer's baptism have a history very firmly rooted in Catholicism. Some examples are Church of England, Episcopal, Methodist, Lutheran, and Reformed Churches.

Believer's Baptism preceded both Catholicism and the Protestant Reformation. Truth be known, all people who practiced Believer's Baptism were early Protestants. When we trace the history of the Baptists, we can go back all the way to John the Baptist.

Early Baptists:
Ignatius - 1st century - Disciple of John, acquainted with Peter and Paul. Elder in the church at Antioch. In a discourse on baptism, he says, "That it [baptism] ought to be accompanied with faith, love, and patience, after preaching." [Dutch Martyrol, c. 1]
Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus - died 258AD - North Africa
Donatists - 200?-535BC - North Africa
Council of Neocaesarea - 314-325AD - Palestine - 6th canon, "That confession and free choice were necessary to baptism." [Magde. Cent. in Danver’s, p. 68]
Ephraim the Syrian - 306-373AD - Mesopotamia - "It was the custom, when any one was baptized, to declare they did forsake the devil and all his works, adultery," and "the baptized used to confess their sins, and testify their faith, before many witnesses."
Novatianists - 5th century - Italy
Paterines - 600-1100?AD - Italy
Petrobrussians & Henricians- -1100AD+ - France
Lollards - 1370's-15th century - England
Hutterites - 1533?-Present - Moravia
Swiss Brethren
Mennonites - 1536-Present -
Amish - 1693-Present - France
Anabaptist - 1525-Present -
Melchiorites - 1530's - Europe

JEROM OR HIEROM, a presbyter in Dalmatia, observes on Matt. 28:19. "They first teach all nations, then, when they are taught, they baptise them with water; for it cannot be, that the body should receive the sacrament of baptism, unless the soul have before received the true faith." [Wall’s Hist. p. 2, c. 1, p. 7] He declares, "that in the eastern churches, the adult only were baptized;" also, "that they are to be admitted to baptism to whom it doth belong: viz., those only who have been instructed in the faith." [Danver’s Treat. p. 67] He also appealed to his auditory, and remarked, "When you were baptised, did you not swear allegiance to Christ, and that you would spare neither father nor mother for his sake?" [Morris’s Biog., v.i., 377]
AMBROSE, Bishop of Milan, speaking of baptism, says, "there were three questions propounded, and three answers or confessions made, without which none can be baptized;" [Morris’s Biog. v. i. p. 356] * * * "at last you are introduced into the place where the sacrament of baptism is administered, you are obliged to renounce the devil and all his works, the world, and all its pomps and allurements. You found in this place the water and a priest who consecrated the waters; the body was plunged into this water to wash away sin; the Holy Ghost descended upon this water; you ought not to fix your mind upon the external part of it, but to consider in it a divine virtue." [Dupin, c. 4, p. 214, &c.] He asserts, "Thou wast asked, Dost thou believe in God the Father Almighty? thou saidst, I do believe, and wast dipped, that is, buried. Thou wast asked again, Dost thou believe on our Lord Jesus Christ, and his crucifixion? thou saidst, I believe, and wast dipped again, and so wast buried with Christ. Thou wast interrogated the third time, Dost thou believe in the Holy Spirit? thou answeredst, I believe, and wast dipped a third time." [Stennett’s Ans. p. 144, and Cox on Bap. p. 48]
The council of Laodicea required notice from the person who intended to be baptized, and resolved all should be instructed before they received it; [Dupin, c. 4, p. 262] and determined that the baptized should rehearse the articles of the creed. [Magd. Cent. in Danver’s, p. 68]
The council of Constantinople decreed that certain persons should remain a long time under scriptural instruction, before they receive baptism. [Dupin, c. 4, p. 273]
The council of Carthage, in canon 34, declares, that "sick persons shall be baptized, who cannot answer any longer, when those who are by them testify that they desired it." Again, "those who have no testimonials, and do not remember that they were baptized, shall be baptized anew." [Dupin c. 4, p. 279]
The MESSALIANS or EUCHITES (the one a Hebrew term, the other Greek, and signifying a praying people) had in Greece a very early existence. These terms had also a very extensive application among the Greeks and orientals, who gave it to all those who endeavored to raise the soul to God, by recalling and withdrawing it from all terrestrial and sensible objects. [Mosh. Hist. C. 4, p. 2. oh. 5, ~ 24] These people, like all other nonconformists, are reproached and branded with heresy by the old orthodox writers; but, whatever errors may have been mixed up with their creed, it would appear devotion and piety formed the ground of the stigma, so that a puritanical character is fully implied. These Messalians were evidently the parent stock of Nonconformists in Greece. They attributed to two opposite causes, the sources of good and evil, much as we do in the present day; but their enemies, recording their views, have made them a people to be wondered at, and to be avoided. This way of misrepresentation was the only means the dominant party had to suppress "the men more righteous than themselves," before the church was endowed with a sword. The morality of this people was severe and captivating to the simple, but their discipline and worship are both reproached. [Rob. Hist. Bap. p. 208] This parent stock of nonconformists was divided and subdivided by the clergy into various classes of heretics. They were often named from the country they inhabited, as Armenians, Phrygians, Bulgarians, and Philippopolitans, or as it was corruptly sounded in the west, Popolicans, Poblicans, Publicans. Some were called after the names of their teachers, as Pauleanists, Novatianists, Donatists, Paulicians, and many more names were found in this class. [Rob. Res. p. 58] The term Euchites among Greeks was a general name for Dissenters, as the Waldenses was in the Latin church, and Nonconformists in England. [Id. p. 56] This large body of Dissenters were resident in the empire from the first establishment of Christianity, till its destruction in the thirteenth century. [Ib.]

Works cited:
A Concise History of the Baptists:
Daniel Francis Eggink

Jeremy Brown 2004

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